Peter Edwards; Kamtorn Kaewpaitoon; David C. Little; Nipon Sirip
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Abstract: Ten cooperating farmers in Northeast Thailand obtained a mean net yield of 1.8 tonnes/ha/yr of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in 200-m2 ponds manured at a rate of 200 kg dry matter (DM)/ha/day. Farmers were enthusiastic about the trial but fish production was most inefficient. A mean of 4.0 tonnes of fresh manure was collected and loaded into the 200-m2 pond over a 7-month period to yield only 20.7 kg of fish. Mean manure to fish conversion ratios were 195 and 34:1 on fresh and dry matter bases, respectively, with a dry matter conversion efficiency of manure to fish of <1%. Buffalo manure should not be recommended to farmers as a major pond fertilizer.