RL Hummel; R L Brandenburg; A S Heagle; C Arellana
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Abstract: Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a significant pest of peanut, Arachis hypogeae L., that continues to present problems as an induced pest despite recent widespread implementation of IPM practices. Effects of ozone (O3) on reproduction of twospotted spider mites feeding on an O3-sensitive clone and an O3-resistant clone of white clover, Trifolium repens L., were investigated in a greenhouse in continuous-stirred tank reactor chambers. Mite eggs of narrow age distribution (?6 h) were placed on white clover plants exposed to 5 treatment levels of O3. Constant amounts of O3 were added to charcoal-filtered air for 6 h per day to achieve 5 mean concentrations ranging from 10 to 112 nl per liter. Plants were exposed to O3 ?9 d before infestation with mites; daily exposures continued for ?20 d after mite infestation. The developmental stage of each mite was recorded at ?2-d intervals until females were sexually mature (?10 d) and began ovipositing. Thereafter, the cumulative number of eggs produced per mite was recorded. After ?5 d of oviposition, each adult mite was removed and the percentage hatch of eggs remaining on each plant was measured for an additional 5 d. Ozone caused more chlorosis and necrosis on the O3-sensitive clover clone than on the O3-resistant clover clone. Increasing O3 levels caused a significant linear decrease in developmental period of the mites. Estimates of time to 1st oviposition decreased linearly with increasing O3. Estimates of time of 1st hatch of 2nd-generation eggs decreased linearly with increasing O3. Elevated O3 levels appear to decrease the time required for female mites to develop from egg to ovipositing adult, which may have a profound effect on the intrinsic rate of population increase. Different responses by mites feeding on resistant plants versus susceptible plants suggests that this is a plant-mediated response.