M. van Noordwijk
Type of Document:
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
Date of Publication:
Place of Publication:
Summary: The development of transparent and sustainable reward mechanisms for environmental services provided by upland farmers to downstream communities requires clarity on the relationship between land use and the type of environmental services provided. In the context of the RUPES project (‘rewarding upland poor for the environmental services they provide’), a typology of environmental services is discussed that leads to the distinction of twelve ‘proto-types’ of situations where the upland-lowland relationship is focused on a specific environmental service function.
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction 2. A natural classification system: watershed, biodiversity, carbon 2.1. Overview 2.2. Biodiversity 2.2.1. Conserve what is still left 2.2.2. Local importance of flora, fauna and ecosystems 2.2.3. Belowground biodiversity a special case? 2.3. Carbon stocks 2.4. Watershed functions 2.4.1. General 2.4.2. Total water yield 2.4.3. Evenness of water flow 2.4.4. Water quality 2.4.5. Watershed protection 2.4.6. Environmental flows 3. The classification system used for Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 4. Poverty dimensions and environmental service levels 5. Environmental service reward syndromes 5.1. Protection or rehabilitation 5.2. How do rural poor affect environmental services? 5.3. Dependence of environmental services on land use and opportunities for ES rewards 5.4. Prototypes of environmental service reward situations