Selling two environmental services: In-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia
N.M. Asquith; M.T. Vargas; S. Wunder
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This article describes the payment for environmental services (PES) scheme in Los Negros valley, Bolivia, which pays landowners for two environmental services provided by forest protection – bird habitat and watershed services. Paying landowners for both environmental services allows for multiple sources of funding (i.e., conservation donors as well as downstream irrigators), thus making forest conservation a more competitive land use choice for owners.
1. Introduction 2. Local economy, land use and land tenure 3. PES negotiations 4. Implementation and payment mode 5. Monitoring, compliance and sanctions 6. Obstacles to implementation 7. Baseline establishment and additionality 8. Permanence and leakage 9. Spatial differentiation 10. Participation of disadvantaged groups and livelihood impacts 11. Next steps 12. Discussion