Effect of harvest date and termite-resistant varieties on termite and millipede damage to groundnut in Burkina Faso
RE Lynch; AP Ouedraogo; SA Some
Type of Document:
Conference Proceeding or Document
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Abstract: In SAT Africa, the groundnut aphid (Aphis craccivora) , jassids (Empoasca doJichi and E. faciaJis) , armyworm (Spodoptera JittoraJis (Boisduval)), the groundnut hopper (Hilda patrueJis), termite (Microtermes thoracaJis), millipedes (Peridontopyge spp.), the groundnut bruchid (Caryedon serratus (01.)), and the “Wang” (Aphanus (or Elasmolomus) sorditus (F.)) are considered major pests of groundnut. Termites, millipedes, thrips, and jassids are potential economic pests in Burkina Faso. Of these, termites are the most serious since they not only reduce groundnut yield but also enhance Aspergillus flavus infection. Two types of damage to groundnut by termites have been described, invasion of the tap root and pod scarification. Greateryield loss is attributed to damage by tap root invasion. In turn, tap root invasion results in a linear relationship with yield loss. Pod scarification is also accentuated by late harvesting and irregular maturity. Termite damage to groundnut is greater in periods of inadequate rainfall during the latter portion of the growing season. The major significance of pod scarification and penetration by termites is the enhanced entry and growth of A. flavus. Millipedes attack both seedlings and developing pods. Of the 13species of millipedes reported to attack groundnut, members of the genus Peridontopyge appearto be most important. Yield losses of 10-35% have been reported for millipede damage. Resistance to termite damage in groundnut has been reported. Field resistance to A. flavus invasion and aflatoxin formation has also been recently discovered. Although none of the cultivars evaluated for A. flavus invasion were immune, J 11 had both resistances to termite damage and al:latoxin formation. The research reported in this Summary was conducted to evaluate the effects of harvest date on millipede and termite damage to groundnut, A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination of kernels, and to screen groundnut cultivars for resistance to termite damage.