Germplasm Enhancement through Genetic Manipulation for Increasing Resistance to Insects and Improving Efficient Nutrient Use in Genotypes Adapted to Sustainable Production Systems (Joint with TropSoils CRSP)
Texas A&M University
TropSoils CRSP Collaborating Scientists' Institutions: EAP/SRN (Honduras); DAR (Botswana); IER (Mali); University of Georgia, USDA-ARS (US)
Gary C. Peterson; Arthur B. Onken
Sorghum production and yield stability is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Insects pose a produc-lion risk in all areas of sorghum production, the severity of damage depending on the insect and local environment. To reduce the impact of stress, research is needed to develop crop genotypes with enhanced environmental fitness suitable for use in more sustainable production systems. Genetic resistance to multiple stresses in a single genotype will fuither reduce environmental risk and contribute to improved productivity in LDC and DC production systems.
1. Obtain and evaluate germplasm for resistance to arthropod pests. Determine the resistance source or mechanisms most useful to sorghum improvement. 2. Determine the inheritance of insect resistance. Develop and release high yielding agronomically improved sorghum resistant to selected insects including the sorghum midge. 3. Identify and define potentail sources of more efficient plant nutrient extraction and/or utilization in sorghum. 4. Develop agronomically elite sorghum with improved nutrient use efficiencies. 5. Develop new methods for determining nutrient use effi-ciencies and study responsib,1 echanisms when appropriate. 6. Determine the effects of nutrient use efficiency on water use efficiency in sorghum. 7. Develop analytical procedures for determining chemical and physical properties of Sahelian soils and diagnostic techniques to use in predicting crop response and need for fertilizers or corrective amendments. 8. Identify and defime sorghum genotype3 with varying levels or tolerance to drought and chemical stress of Sa-helian soils and determine how each trait is inherited.