In vivo use of extracts from Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus against Phytophthora palmivora causing blackpod disease of cocoa
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Annals of Applied Biology
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Abstract: Crude steam distillate from Ocimum gratissimum sprayed onto infection courts on detached cocoa pods moments after inoculation with Phytophthora palmivora completely inhibited the pathogen and blackpod lesion development on 75% of the infection courts. Disease suppression obtained with the extract was comparable to that obtained with a 2% Kocide 101 suspension. In the field, the O. gratissimum extract also suppressed lesion development although to a significantly lower (P = 0.05) extent in comparison with Kocide 101. Blackpod lesion expansion rates of 3.80, 3.56, 2.71 and 0.78 cm/day, respectively, were associated with pods treated in the field with C. citratus extract, tap water, O. gratissimum extract and 2% Kocide 101. The extract from Cymbopogon citratus was also ineffective on detached pods. Sporangia of P. palmivora from sporu-lating blackpod lesions on both detached and non-detached pods lost their infectivity within 1 h of treatment with the O. gratissimum extract. This effect was superior to that obtained with Kocide 101. Fungitoxicity of the extract on pods, however, was lost within 3 h of application. Thus, despite its in vivo effectiveness as an eradicant, the O. gratissimum extract, in its present form, has limited utility as a protectant fungicide.