Taking stock: A comparative analysis of payments for environmental services programs in developed and developing countries
S. Wunder; S. Engel; S. Pagiola
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This article analyzes characteristics of payments for environmental services (PES) programs in developing and developed countries, differentiating between the various factors creating such wide diversity. The most substantial differences were found between user- and government-funded programs. The paper concludes with suggestions for improving effectiveness and financial efficiency of all types of PES programs.
1. Introduction 2. PES case studies 3. Effectiveness and efficiency of PES programs 3.1. Environmental service generation 3.2. Cost of ES provision in PES programs 4. Distributional impacts of PES programs 5. Conclusions and perspectives