R. Costanza; R. d'Arge; R. de Groot; S. Farberk; M. Grasso; B. Hannon; K. Limburg; S. Naeem; R.V. O'Neill; J. Paruelo; R.G. Raskin; P. Sutton; M. van den Belt
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Nature Publishing Group
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The ecological life-support systems of Earth provide direct and indirect services that are imperative for the survival of humanity. These vital services contribute to the economic value of the planet, but are rarely quantified or incorporated into commercial markets. The authors of this paper draw from published studies and original calculations to estimate the economic value of 17 ecosystem services provided in 16 biomes. The results suggest an average of US$33 trillion per year as a minimum estimate of the value of total ecosystem services; this value is 1.8 times the global GNP (US$18 trillion per year).