Brandy M. Howard; Yen-Con Hung; S. Kaymcwatters
Type of Document:
Journal of Food Science
Date of Publication:
Place of Publication:
Abstract: Powder for an instant shake-style beverage was created using partially defatted peanut flour (12% fat), granulated sugar, and nonfat dry milk (NFDM). The 3 main components, along with constant amounts of stabilizing gums and anti-caking silica, were mixed together and finely milled in a Super Wing Mill to further reduce the particle sizes. Drinks from each formula variation were prepared and analyzed for viscosity (digital viscometer), color (colorimeter), and separation rate. Each beverage was also analyzed by consumers to determine acceptability of flavor, mouth-feel, and color. Physical test results show that viscosity increased with increasing proportion of peanut flour in the formula, and viscosity decreased with increasing levels of sugar and NFDM. For each formula, the samples at refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C) were less viscous than those at ambient temperatures (23 to 25 degrees C). Color values show that the beverage powder color was mostly influenced by peanut flour percentage, becoming darker with increasing levels of peanut flour. Prepared beverage color was influenced by both NFDM and peanut flour percentage; lightness increased with increasing NFDM percentage and decreased with increasing peanut flour percentage. Separation rates were most affected by the proportion of NFDM in the formula; higher levels decreased the rate of separation. Refrigeration slowed the rate of separation in all samples. Response surface analysis of consumer test data showed that the most acceptable formulation for the peanut beverage included approximately equal amounts of peanut flour, sugar, and NFDM.