Considerations on the Policy Environment for Aquaculture in Vietnam
Le Xuan Sinh
Type of Document:
Conference Proceeding or Document
27th Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics & Trade
Date of Publication:
Place of Publication:
Abstract: The fishery sector, including capture, aquaculture, processing and suportive services, plays an important role to the whole economy of Vietnam. Total aquatic production of the country increased about 3 times after 15 years, from 1.02 million tones in 1990 to 3.43 million tones in 2005. The growth of aquaculture production was from 0.30 million tones in 1990 to 1.44 million tones in 2005 or increased 4.6 times, faster compared with that of capture (from 0.79 to 1.99 million tones, respectively). Aquaculture becomes more and more crucial when it contributes over 50% of the total aquatic production of Vietnam. How to obtain a sustainable development of the whole sector, particularly aquaculture, is a big and difficult question which requires the answers from different aspects, not only technical and socio-economic aspects but also environmental and political aspects. This paper is aimed at the policy environment for aquaculture development in Vietnam. Economic reform or Doi moi process started from the end of 1980s leading to further improvement in the policy environment and helped to result in an impressive development of Vietnam’s fishery sector, especially aquaculture sub-sector. Major considerarions are focused on: (1) Land reform policy/Laws with conversion of inefficient agricultural land into aquaculture; (2) Environmental Laws with with the use and management of water, natural aquatic resources and wetland forests; (3) Finance and investment; (4) Seed supply, use and management; (5) Feed supply, use and management; and (6) Chemicals and medicine supply, use and management. The analysis is also linked with processing and export of aquatic products, the integration process (WTO), and three most important cultured species in Vietnam at the present time, i.e., tra/basa (Pangasius hypophthalmus/Pangasius bocourti), black tiger shrimp (Penaneus monodon) and hard clam (Meretrix lyrata). It is revealed that many of the issued policies and regulations were ineffective or even unacted while more and appropriate ones need to be provided for further development of aquaculture and fishery sector.